Author : HARTANTO, DENNIS
This study is about differences of spoken Indonesian used in opening expressions, closing expressions and the use of addressing terms by people in Jakarta and Surabaya as seen through Lenong and Srimulat theatres. The writer analyzed the lexical and prosodic features while the grammatical items will be excluded. The writer used the descriptive approach in doing this study. In getting the data, he used a TV shows of Lenong and Srimulat theatres as the subject of this study The theories that are used by the writer in analyzing the data are the theory of Sociolinguistics, the theory expressions as well as the classification of English personal pronouns that is used as the basic theory to discuss the opening expressions, closing expressions and addressing terms used by the subjects. After analyzing all the data, the writer finds out from the data that the opening expressions in Lenong are softer than opening expressions in Srimulat Because in Lenong, they like to use opening expressions with title while in Srimulat, they like to use opening expressions with personal name. The closing expressions in Srimulat are ruder than closing expressions in Lenong Because in Srimulat, they like to use closing expression without a lip service while in Lenong, they like to use closing expressions with a lip service. The addressing terms in Srimulat is ruder than the addressing terms in Lenong although for some occasions the tone of addressing terms in Srimulat is softer than usual.
Keyword : javanese, language, sociolinguistics, lenong, srimulat
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2841/
Author : MARGARETHA, MEYKE
In campus life, expressing disagreement is a common thing. For this reason, the writer is interested to find out how gender and solidarity influence male and female students? disagreement strategies, mainly whether they are confrontational or nonconfrontational, toward their male and female teachers. The data of this study are 25 male and 25 female students of the English Department of Petra Christian University. The writer used a discourse completion test that is questionnaire to collect the data. She made four role-play situations in order to help the respondent in expressing their disagreement easily. Then, the data are categorized based on Garcia?s (1989) classification of disagreement strategies, concerning confrontational and nonconfrontational, and put them in tables. In this study, she analyzed the data with a statistics analysis in order to get significant results. From the statistics, she found that the male students have no significant differences of disagreement strategies toward their male and female teachers. On the other hand, it shows there is significant differences of confrontational and nonconfrontational used by the female students toward their male and female teachers. The female students tended to use confrontational strategy toward their male teachers, mostly they used “challenge.” It may be because they felt uncomfortable when talking to male teachers. By using “challenge, they just demanded response or even just an answer from the male teachers as their interlocutors, as soon as possible. On the contrary, they tended to use nonconfrontational strategy, especially “giving reason,” when the interlocutors are female teachers. Perhaps they felt more comfortable in the same-sex interaction than in cross-sex interaction.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, disagreement strategies
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2036/
Author : DEWI, AMELIA
This study is basically an analysis of the dialogues between Yatun and her father, the two main characters of “Ambyuke Nyonyah Besar”, a short story written in Surabaya Javanese dialect by Suparto Brata. In this study, the writer looked for the associative lexical items of the utterances and finds both their cognitive and associative meaning in order to reveal the propositional content and the illocutionary force of the speech act utterances. This study is a qualitative research; therefore, the main instrument is the writer herself. The source of data was taken from the dialogues between the main characters in Suparto Brata?s short story `Ambyuke Nyonyah Besar”, one of the short-stories in his book “TREM Antologi Crita Cekak”, a compilation of twenty short-stories which were all written in Javanese. For her analysis, first she organized the utterances between Yatun and her father by giving numbers. Then, she grouped them based on their topics. Next, she proceeded to identifying the propositional content of the utterance in which she looked for both cognitive and associative meaning of the associative lexical items found in the utterances. Having analyzed all the data, she found out twenty-two speech act utterances with various associative lexical items used by the characters in speaking to each other. Those associative lexical items had both cognitive and associative meanings. The propositional content of the utterances were based on both types of meaning above. However, the illocutionary forces of the utterances were derived from the propositional content of the associative meaning of the associative lexical items as the writer of this study believes that it reveals the intended meaning of the speaker. Finally, the writer of this study concluded that in order to understand Javanese, both speaker and interlocutor should understand the two types of meanings revealed in the associative lexical items, which were the cognitive and the associative meanings of the associative lexical items. By analyzing of the associative lexical items, it was possible to determine the illocutionary force of the utterance. In this way, what the speaker intended to say was eventually revealed.
Keyword : antrophological, linguistics, java, sociolinguistics, language
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2147/
Author : PRAWITO, HAINESS
This study aims to identify the differences and the similarities of the refusal strategies used by thirty Javanese and thirty Chinese female university students in refusing a date invitation by comparing the occurrence of each strategy. The data were gathered from three universities in Surabaya, Airlangga, Surabaya, and Petra. There were three main theories that are used in this study: The Refusal Strategies by Carmen Garcia (1992), Head Acts and Supportive Moves by Blum-Kulka (1989), and Politeness Strategies by Scollon and Scollon (1983). The writer found that the female Chinese students preferred using Direct Refusal and Mitigated Refusal as the Head Acts, while female Javanese students preferred using Direct Refusal, Expression of Regret or Sorrow, and Mitigated Refusal as the Head Acts. The writer also found that most of the respondents preferred using Giving Reason or Explanation, and Expression of Regret or Sorrow as the Supportive Moves. These facts may imply that the Javanese students tend to avoid saying ?no? by using Deference Politeness, while the Chinese students tend to be straightforward by using Solidarity Politeness in refusing a date invitation. The last but not the least, the writer found that the female students frequently used Expression of Regret or Sorrow, Direct Refusal/ Mitigated Refusal, Giving Reason as the pattern in refusing a date invitation.
Keyword : refusal, date invitation, sociolinguistics, female university students
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2877/
Author : ENDRA, YANTY
This study investigates the speech styles used in”Selamat Datang Pagi” dialog program on “RCTI”. The writer is interested to investigate the speech styles because speech style is important to use to communicate with other people. The writer applied Martin Joos? theory (1976) of speech styles, which are divided into five categories: frozen style, formal style, consultative style, casual style and intimate style as her main theory supported by Nababan (1991), Holmes (1995), Abdul Chaer and Leony Agustina (1986), Kridalaksana (1984), and Tata Bahasa Baku Indonesia (1992). In analysing the data, firstly, the writer recorded the speakers? utterances to be transcribed. Secondly, she identified the utterances used by male and female host based on the classification of speech styles whether frozen, formal, consultative, casual or intimate style. Based on the characteristics given by speech styles, the analysis where presented using tables, including the frequency of the occurrence of each speech styles. Through the analysis, the writer found that there are four speech styles produce by male and female host; they are formal, consultative, casual and intimate style. Casual style occurs mostly, followed by consultative, formal and the last intimate style. The findings of this research shows that casual style is the most frequently uses in “Selamat Datang Pagi” dialog program, which has family atmosphere. Using casual style can make male and female host more comfortable to communicate, and using this style can support male and female host?s situation become enjoyable so they can easily tell their opinion to the guests.
Keyword : indonesian language, sociolinguistics, speech
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2039/
Author : TISILA, ARDILES
The real functions of the swear words are to insult, to mock, and to curse someone or something with obscene words (Partridge, 1984). Generally, any kinds of swear words are forbidden to appear in any conversations in both formal and informal situations. However, youngsters nowadays often use many swear words in their conversations with their friends especially when they have jokes or call their friends? names. These kinds of conversations often occur among the male students of Petra Christian University especially in the boarding house. In this case, the writer is curious to identify Javanese swear words that are spoken by the male students of Petra Christian University as well as their purposes. The writer used descriptive-qualitative approach in order to get the data in the boarding house through note-taking. He also used himself as the instrument and the observer to collect the data in their conversations in the boarding house. In the analysis, after having collected the data, he tabulated the findings and then discussed them. The result of this study indicates that nowadays swear words in the conversations among the youngsters have become more usual nowadays in their social life, especially for male students of Petra Christian University.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, swear word, verbal obscenity, javanese language, slang
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2153/
Author : AGUSTINE, CECILIA
Lakoff (1975) says that women use language which reinforces their subordinate status: They are colluding in their subordination by the way they speak. Therefore, Lakoff proceeds to draw up a list of features which supposedly represent typical female discourse, as distinct from male talk. Based on her opinion, those speech features express uncertainty and lack of confidence. This study is held to verify the use of women?s speech features by female VJs of MTV Indonesia. The reason of choosing MTV Indonesia?s female VJs is because they are totally different from the eastern women in general, and the differences seem to be very interesting to be noted.This study of women?s language is elaborated into the dominant and the least features used. In this study, the writer notes and takes records the conversations between two female VJs of Mtv Indonesia while they are presenting the programs. From this observation, by separating each utterance, the writer is able to identify the kinds of speech feature, the most common features and the least feature used by female VJs of MTV Indonesia. From the findings, the writer found that both VJ Nirina and VJ Denise adopted women?s speech features. The most common feature used by VJ Nirina and VJ Denise is lexical hedges or fillers. The least features used by VJ Denise are tag question, “superpolite” form and avoidance of strong swear words. The least feature used by VJ Nirina was “empty” adjectives. From the findings, the writer can conclude that both of them might have tendency to be lack of self-confidence. The findings show that Robin Lakoff as the pioneer in the finding of women?s speech features theory in 1975, still can be considered as appropriate used until now on. It shows that Robib Lakoff is a smart and diligent person.
Keyword : women?s speech feature, mtv indonesia, vjs, sociolinguistics
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2159/