Kumpulan Skripsi & Artikel Jurnal Ilmiah

2009

Syntactic structures in the six rap songs of “rage againts the machine”

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Author : ZEINUAR, PUNGKI

This study is trying to analyze the types of syntactic structures on the lyrics of “Rage Against The Machine”, particularly on its structural patterns. The writer is trying to find out what types of syntactic structures are found and the most predominant type of syntactic structures in the six rap songs of “Rage Against The Machine”. The writer uses qualitative approach to analyze the six rap songs of “Rage Against The Machine”. To be able to analyze the rap songs, he applies the basic four types of syntactic structures based on Francis’s theory as the major theory supported by Saymour Chatman on inversion. The four types of syntactic structures, structure of modification, structure of predication, structure of complementation, and structure of coordination, are found in the six rap songs. There is not any inversion of word order applied in rap songs, except in the two lines of ‘Take the power back’, line 11 and 37. The writer also finds there are similarities between the lyrics and the poem in form and structure. Both of them have verses and the lines constitute a structural relation between/among the lines. Structurally related lines of “Rage Against the Machine” construct three types of bigger construction of syntactic structures, structure of modification, structure of predication, and structure of coordination. Finally he finds that structure of predication is the most predominant type of all that reaches more than 50%, followed by structure of modification, structure of complementation, and the least predominant is structure of coordination.

Keyword : english language, grammar, syntax, rap, song

The Study of grammatical errors produced by the students of the 3rd grade of Santa Clara elementary school focusing in simple present tense and simple present continuous tense

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Author : PRASETYA, AGUSTINA

This Study is about the grammatical errors produced by the students of the 3 rd grade of Santa Clara Elementary School Focusing in Simple Present Tense and Simple Present Continuous Tense. The research problems of this study is what grammatical errors are produced by the students in the 3 rd grade of Santa Clara Elementary School. The writer does this study based on the theories of Ellis (1997). According to Ellis, there are four classifying of the errors; Omission, Misinformation, Misordering, Haphazard Substitution. For the data, the writer gives tests to the students. The tests are made by the writer herself taken from several books that are used by the 3 rd grade students of Elementary School. However, after the writer got the data then the writer analyzed the data, classified the errors then put them into tables. After the writer found out and discussed then the writer concluded that in Simple Present Tense, the grammatical errors that the students produced are Omission, Misinformation, and Misordering while in the Simple Present Continuous Tense the grammatical errors that he students produced are Omission, Misinformation, Miordering, Haphazard Substitutions. For both of the tenses, the errors that usually produce are Misinformation.

Keyword : grammar, errors, grammatical errors, simple present tense, simple present continuous tense

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4109/

Errors in the production of verb groups in the present and past tense produced by the students of writing i of the English Department at Petra Christian University in their midterm assignment

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Author : KARTONO, BARAWAN

Errors cannot be separated from the process of learning. Studying learners? errors is significant since they function as a sign of learning. Therefore, the writer interested to find out the types of errors. This thesis is the study of errors in production of verb group produced by the students of Writing 1 of the English Department at Petra Christian University. In this thesis, the writer only observes the type of errors in the production of verb group made by students. The writer divides the errors into errors in the production of verb group in the present tense and past tense. The writer wants to know the types of errors and the frequency that occur. In order to solve the problems in this thesis, the writer relies on some theories of second language learning, errors analysis, and grammatical errors (especially about errors in the production of verb group). The writer uses descriptive method in doing this thesis. The subjects of this thesis are students of Writing 1 of the English Department at Petra Christian University. The data is written data which is taken from midterm assignment of Writing 1. The writer collects the data by copying the papers. Then the writer identifies and analyzes the data by reading and classifying the data into the types of error in the production of verb group. Finally, the writer finds that error in the production of be + verb stem for verb stem (type A) is mostly used by the students of writing I in the present tense. For past tense, most of the students make error in the production of be + omitted before verb stem + -ed (type F). In addition, the type of error that is mostly used by the students of “Writing I” of the English Department in their midterm assignment is error in the production of be + verb stem for verb stem (type A). Those errors are possibly caused by overgeneralization, false concepts hypothesized and incomplete application of rule.

Keyword : verb groups, grammar, grammatical errors, present tense, past tense

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/759/

The Study of infinitives as seen as the syntactic structure in the articles of Newsweek

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Author : SUGIHWANTO, JULIDYA

In English, verbs can take different forms, such as verb forms related to the use of tenses, the -ing form, and infinitives. This thesis deals with one of the verb forms, the infinitives, as they occur in three Newsweek articles. In this thesis, this problem is elaborated in terms of the research questions : the syntactic structures in which the infinitive verbs occur, the syntactic functions of the infinitives, and types of infinitives and syntactic functions which are predominant. The infinitives are analyzed in terms of their functions. Following Nelson Francis (1958 : 292), there are four types of syntactic structures: structure of modification, structure of predication, structure of complementation, and structure of coordination. There are two types of infinitives, infinitives with to and infinitives without to. The findings reveal that predominantly infinitives with to, which function as verbal elements, are found in the structure of complementation. In the structure of modification, infinitives without to mostly occur and function as heads. Semantically, infinitives have the same pattern as finite verbs in normal sentences in a sense that they function as verbal elements which go with their subjects.

Keyword : infinitives, syntactic structure, grammar

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/5623/

The Grammatical structure of the register of football commentators

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Author : CHRISTIAN, MARIO

Register is a language variation that is related to the language of groups of people with common interests, jobs, or situations. In sports, there is a certain style of register that is produced by sport commentators. One of the sports that has unique characteristics of register is football. The language of football commentators, which is a play-by-play commentary, often occurs in the form of telegraphic speech, that is consisting a lot of syntactic reduction and inversion. Thus, it is interesting to find out the grammatical structure produced by football commentators, and the reason why they use that kind of grammatical structure. According to Janet Holmes (1992), a play-by-play description used by sport announcers will not cause the lost of meaning and the reference of the speech is not ambiguous since the addressee can see it in the picture shown. In the analysis of the grammatical structure of football commentators, the writer uses the generative transformational grammar, because it can describe more effectively the process and the relations between sentences that are inverted, substituted, or deleted. This study uses qualitative approach in order to find out the characteristics of the register of football commentators, and the reasons why they have the characteristics. The data are in the form of commentary of one football match between AS Roma and AC Parma on 17 June 2001. The writer will then make the transcription of the commentary and analyse the grammatical structure, then put it in the tables. The writer will then try to interpret the reasons why football commentators use that kind of grammatical structure based on Holmes theory that football commentators often use the syntactic reduction, syntactic inversion, and heavy noun modification forms. It is because they have to speak quickly, accurately, and interestingly.

Keyword : grammar, structure, register, football, commentators, syntax

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1249/

An Analysis of the english grammatical errors found in english greeting cards composed and produced in Indonesia

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Author : ROSALINDA, YUANITA

This research is a study about grammatical errors. The main focus of the study is concentrated on the errors found in English greeting cards composed and produced in Indonesia. Grammar is an essential requirement toward a successful result in learning any language, including English. People have to pay more attention both to what they want to say and also how they are going to express their ideas in writing. Grammatical error in writing may disturb the coherence of the piece of writing. By using correct grammatical rule, writers will have good writing. Yet, making errors cannot be avoided. Therefore, the writer is eager to conduct a research on grammatical errors especially in English greeting cards composed and produced in Indonesia. The writer limited the types of greeting cards to Christmas cards (including New Year?s cards) and Valentine?s cards only. The total number of the greeting cards is 50 greeting cards which consist of 25 greeting cards for each type. Also, the writer is curious to know about the kinds of grammatical errors found in those greeting cards. Moreover, the writer also wants to know about the most frequent type of errors found in those greeting cards. Thus, to support this study theoretically, the writer used the theories of errors and error analysis. The writer used the theories of errors by Corder, Ellis, Dulay, and Richards, and the theories of error analysis by Dulay, Burt and Krashen. The writer used descriptive qualitative approach since the writer did the research with the data she found. While doing this, the writer also provided correct forms for the error. After getting the data, the writer analyzed the errors and classified them to omission, addition, misformation, misordering and haphazard substitution erros. The writer found that each of 50 greeting cards has an error. The writer also found that the most frequent type of errors found in both Christmas cards and Valentine?s cards was the same, that is, omission error. Finally, the writer concluded that there was quite a great deal of English greeting cards in Indonesia that might consist of errors. As a result, the learner should be more aware of choosing English greeting cards.

Keyword : grammar, grammatical error, error, error analysis, surface strategy taxonomy

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/5100/

An Error analysis on the tenses produced by the students of BBC english course in Rungkut Surabaya

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Author : HARVIANTI, LUCIA

Each language has its own system, which is different from the other; for example English has its own system, tenses, which make it different from Indonesian. Learning tenses may improve our knowledge about foreign language. In the rocess of learning foreign language, making error usually happens and it is like any other human learning, which involves trial and error. Errors indicate that the process of learning is actually in progress. This study limits the analysis of five tense forms namely, Simple Present, Present Progressive, Present Perfect, Simple Past and Simple Future (Will) because they are viewed as the core system in English. The theory of Brown, Ellis and Corder are used in this study to refer error as the language system that the learner is using. The theory of error analysis by Ellis and Brown is also used as a main theory to do the analysis. Other theory used IS English tenses by Bing, Azar and Comrie The analysis is based on the theory of tenses, in which the writer describes and explains each tense in details. In the analysis, the writer finds that the students produced errors in each tense. She considers the students still have not mastered the five english tenses. In the finding, she found that the most frequent error that they produce is Present Perfect tense. As the conclusion, she found that the influence of their mother language impede the process of acquiring foreign language, in which the students are difficult to understand and to learn foreign language, which has different system as their mother language.

Keyword : english, language, grammar, course, rungkut, surabaya

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1528/

English grammatical errors found in the writing assigment of the basic I level student at Kelt

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Author : OKTAVIA, ANYTA

Grammar is an essential requirement toward a successful result in learning any language, including English. The grammatical error in speaking is tolerable since people focus more on the message. On the contrary, people have to pay more attention both to what they want to say (substance) and also how they are going to express their ideas (medium) in writing. The grammatical errors in writing may/will distort and disturb the coherence of the piece of writing By using correct grammatical rules, it will ensure good writing. It is for this reason that, I am eager to analyze the grammatical errors in the writing assignment of the basic I level students at KELT (Key English Language Learning). I use qualitative method since I will identify and classify the type of grammar errors and find the frequency of the occurrence of the errors made by the students of KELT. While doing this, I will also provide the correct forms for the errors. In this research, I am not concerned with the reasons why they produce grammatical those errors. As soon as a grammar rules is broken, an error has been committed. In conducting the thesis, I use the theory of Jack. C. Richards based on his book, ?Error analysis Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition?. He classifies the grammatical errors into 6 categories. They are Errors in the Production of Verb Groups, Errors in the Distribution of Verb Groups, Miscellaneous Errors, Errors in the Use of Prepositions, Errors in the Use of Articles, and Errors in the Use of Questions. After analyzing the data, the writer only finds 4 kinds of errors, namely, errors in the Production of Verb Groups, miscellaneous Errors, errors in the use of prepositions and errors in the use of articles. Most students tend to make errors in the production of verb group, especially in the agreement of verb with subject and tenses. Finally, l recommend that the teacher and students pay more attention on the internalization of grammatical rules. I hope that this thesis will give the teachers and students a better understanding about grammar.

Keyword : grammar, english, language, student, kelt, writing

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1874/

Grammatical errors produced by students of the English department at Petra Christian University in their writing

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Author : WARDHANA, LENNY

This study is about grammatical errors that are produced by “writing 2” students of English Department at Petra Christian University in their mid term exam. The writer realizes that understanding the rules of grammar is very important in order to write well. She is interested in grammatical errors topic because many students still get confused to use the right grammar. In her study, she wants to know what type of errors that the students usually produce and what type of error which is mostly produced by students. The writer limits her research on grammatical errors only, so she does not investigate other errors, such as phonological errors, spelling errors, vocabulary, punctuation and organization. She takes mid term paper of ‘writing 2’ for her data. In analyzing the data, she uses Jack C. Richards?s classification of grammatical errors theory. After doing the analysis, she finds that the types of grammatical errors that are usually produced by ?writing 2? students are Errors in the Production of Verb Groups, especially the use of tense form, Miscellaneous Errors, especially the use of singular form and Errors in the use of Prepositions, especially the use of ?of?. Errors in the Production of Verb Groups is the type of grammatical errors that is mostly produced by the ?writing 2? students of English Department.

Keyword : english, language, grammar, petra christian university, writing, students

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1983/

A Study of grammatical functions of the word “have” in sentences at English Department students of Petra Christian University Surabaya

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Author : HARIYANTO, YULIANA

This thesis investigates the grammatical functions of the word “have” in sentences done by Faculty of Letters Students of Petra Christian University Surabaya. The writer interested to investigate grammatical functions of the word “have” because it has several forms with different functions. Related to that reason, not many students understand well about those functions. The significance of this research is to give inputs to the readers, especially the students to get a better understanding about all functions of the word “have” and its errors in using this word. The writer uses A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet, in their book “A Practical English Grammar”, as her review of literature. In this part, the writer explains about the basic meaning of the word “have”, the forms in the present, past and future tenses and the other functions of the word “have”. In order to categorize the kinds of error in using the functions of the word “have” in sentences, the writer uses the sixth semester students of Faculty of Letters of Petra Christian University Surabaya as the subjects of this thesis. The subjects are taken randomly without considering their sex, but should be in the sixth semester. To collect the data, the writer uses tests, which are distributed to the subjects individually, not in groups. This thesis focuses on the ability of Faculty of Letters students to produce all the functions of the word “have” well in sentences. This goal is described into to part whether the students can or cannot produce all the functions of the word “have” well in sentences. The explanations will be in the form of description and percentage. The writer also divides the errors into two parts: functions of the word “have” errors and tenses errors. After that, the writer will conclude the kinds of function of the word “have” which can be produced well and cannot be produced well by the students.

Keyword : english language, grammar

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2016/

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