Kumpulan Skripsi & Artikel Jurnal Ilmiah


The intended meaning of smurf words in smurf comic strips

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This thesis is a study which uses discourse analysis theory to analyze the coherence on the language used in comic strips. The writer wonders how the readers understand the meaning of `Smurf? in the comic strips which the `Smurf’ words carry different meanings. Besides, the writer also wants to find out what is the intended meaning of `Smurf? in the comic strips. To limit the research activities the writer takes six pieces of comic strips taken from Smurf magazine in May and June edition, 1991, as her data. In analyzing the data the writer did several steps. First, she described the context of situation, by using the theory of Hyme?s Ethnography of Speaking. Second, she described the meaning of each dialogue in each comic strip based on Brown and Yule theories on Coherence concerning the two aspects of recognizing coherent texts, namely; the general socio-cultural knowledge (frame, scripts and schemata) and the inference. Third, she noted down all the intended meaning in `Smuff words that had been underlined. From the analysis, the writer finds out that the word `Smurf? in the comic strips is used to replace different vocabularies. Although the word `Smurf’ is not used to replace particular words, there are some of them have the same meaning, like the words; make, fly, to do and surprise. Finally, the writer finds out that language and culture are interrelated. That?s why to convey the intended message from the comic strip, the readers have to know about social background knowledge and cultural background knowledge used in the comic strip. Since the Smurf comic strips used a lot of `Smurf words, the readers have to interpret the intended meaning by themselves. Without social background knowledge and cultural background knowledge the readers might end with misunderstanding or misinterpretation in reading the comic strip.

Keyword : linguistic, english, language, discourse analysis, smurf

Coherence in the advertisements in national geographic magazine

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This study is done in order to find out the coherence in advertisements of National Geographic Magazine. Such aim is broken into two main problems of the study: (1) What is the most importan knowledge of the shared background knowledge in interpreting the advertisements in National Geographic Magazine? (2) What type of inference is used by the reader in interpreting the advertisements in National Geographic Magazine? The theories used in solving these problems are Minsky?s frame theory, Schank and Abelson?s script theory, Sanford and Garrod’s scenario theory, Van Dijk and Anderson?s schemata theory. Five advertisements from National Geographic Magazine collected as the data are analyzed using the four theories above. From the interpretation and conclusion of the analysis, it can be seen that the four theories above always occur in the process of describing the coherence of the advertisements of National Geographic Magazine. The existence of the first theory, Minsky?s frame theory, which has five elements of fiame, supports the choosing for the correct schemata. The second theory, Schank and Abelson?s script theory deals with understanding the intended meaning of the advertisements. The third theory, Sanford and Garrod?s scenario theory deals with understanding the reason behind the producing of the advertisements. The fourth theory, Van Dijk and Anderson?s schemata theory, are very important for schemata enable the readers to grasp the main topic for the advertisements. Difficulties in finding the schemata may influence in failure of finding the correct frame. If the reader does not have any background knowledge about the world, then the reader will also find difficulties in finding the intended meaning of the advertisements. If the reader cannot find the intended meaning of the advertisements, then the reader cannot know the reason behind the producing of the advertisements. In doing the analysis, the writer finds out that the most important knowledge is schemata for schemata means knowing what the advertisement is about. In the second place, the writer puts script for script means knowing the intended meaning of the advertisements. In the third place, the writer puts scenario as scenario is closely related to script; unable to know the script will also result in failure in knowing the scenario. In the fourth place, the writer puts frame for failure in knowing the frame and its elements will not have any effect in understanding the advertisements. While doing the analysis, the writer discovers that in some of the advertisements there is comparison used to show the connection between the sentences and the thing. The comparison shows in the form of metaphor and simile. For the inferences, the writer discovers that the inferences for the advertisements are mostly automatically made, only one advertisement is non-automatically made. The type of the inferences that occur are elaborative, logical, and evaluative inferences.

Keyword : advertisements, national geographic magazine, linguistic, discourse, analysis, cohesion

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1506/

A Study on politeness strategies used by the interviewers in a foreign exchange company

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The use of politeness strategies is one of the speaking styles which are usually used by people in order to make the communication process between speaker and hearer go smoothly. According to Brown and Levinson the politeness strategies themselves are divided into two, i.e. the positive politeness and negative politeness. The Writer conducted this study in order to find out what politeness strategies are used by the interviewers, what positive politeness strategies are mostly used by interviewers and what negative politeness strategies are mostly used by interviewers. In this research, the writer uses descriptive approach . In conducting the research, the writer uses the recorded material containing the process of interview. The interview was taken from PT Money Mall, a kind of International standard company dealing with the foreign currency in looking for clients to invest money. There are four interviews. The interviewers as Marketing Managers and the interviewees as the job applicants. The data consist of the interviewers? utterances, which are underlined and numbered The writer uses Brown and Levinson?s criteria about the positive and negative politeness. There are fifteen strategies of positive politeness and ten strategies of negative politeness. After four interviews had been analyzed, they are. combined into one table containing the number of strategies from the whole interview, together with the table explanations and table of percentage of the politeness strategy as the findings. The finding also discusses the tendency or the reasons why the interviewer used certain expressions showing the certain strategies. Finally, the writer tries to interpret what the writer has found by using the theories connected with the politeness strategies itself and he related with P,D, R rating concerned with the positive and negative politeness. In conclusion, the writer concludes that the interviewers use more positive politeness than negative politeness.

Keyword : politeness strategies, sociolinguistics, linguistic, discourse analysis

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1517/

Semantic mechanisms of parody as a medium of satire in “Rumah Kopi” column in Siwalima newspaper

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This thesis discusses the application of Semantic mechanisms of humor in parody of the news as a medium of satire in “Rumah Kopi” column in Siwalima newspaper. The writer wants to investigate what does the parodist wants to satirize through his parodies and what kinds of semantic mechanisms of humor are found in parodies. In writing this thesis, the writer uses theory of Parody and Satire and Semantic theory about mechanisms of humor, semantic ambiguity truth-conditional semantic and theory of characterization. The writer uses a qualitative method in analyzing the data. The data she uses is the dialogues between two persons or more in the form of parody, taken from ?Rumah Kopi? column in Siwalima newspaper that is published in Ambon-Maluku. The writer collects the data from 27 January until 5 February 2001. The analysis of the data contains two parts. The first is the analysis of parody as a medium of satire and the second is the analysis of semantic mechanisms of parody. From the first one, the writer finds that by using the formula of Parody which includes the formula of satire, the writer finds what parodies are presented by the parodist (can be found in Code A, that is the code of the author) and what the parodist wants to satirize through his parodies (can be found in Code C, that is the code of the object of criticism). Besides, the parodist mostly uses imagery to imitate the news text. While the analysis of semantic mechanisms of parody guides the writer to find out that all parody use unexpected meaning to surprise the readers and grammatical ambiguity is the most frequently violated linguistic element.

Keyword : linguistic, semantics, parody, rumah kopi, siwalima, newspaper

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2059/

Error types based on linguistic category in the English composition written by the students of writing I at the English Department Petra Christian University

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My study is of error types that are particularly focused on the types of errors in English compositions. The types of errors in English compositions are based on the theory of Professor James Hendrickson, in which the types of errors are classified according to the linguistic category. Therefore, it includes the errors in lexical, morphological, syntactic and orthographic categories. By discovering the students? errors in writing their compositions, this thesis is also to show the most committed type of errors based on linguistic category. I conduct my study by using descriptive and text analysis approach. In this study, I collect the data from Indonesian students who are learning English as a second language at the English Department in Petra Christian University. Specifically, they are the students of 2003 who take their Writing I class in 2003/2004 academic year. I particularly use picture story in order to raise their ideas in writing a composition. There are fifteen drafts to be the data samples, which are then analyzed. The results of the analyses show that the morphological errors gain the highest percentage, while the orthographic errors get the lowest percentage in the compositions. It is important to note that the syntactic errors also take a dominant percentage in the compositions. Since the students mostly produced the morphological and syntactic errors, the findings might suggest that most of the students have problems and difficulties in the application of the Standard English grammar. In addition, it might also suggest that the students? repertoire of English vocabulary items is sufficient in writing a composition, due to the fact that the lexical errors only count for a small percentage. Here, the students are able to use simple lexical items in appropriate situation in writing their compositions.

Keyword : english language, errors of usage, linguistic, writing

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2068/

A Semantic study of short-text humors taken from reader’s digest magazines of April, May and June 2003 editions

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Humor can be found everywhere, everytime, in magazines, newspapers and daily life. There are many functions of humor in the society that have been already realized, as humor is used frequently in a vast range of activities in people?s daily life. However, there are only a few linguistic studies about humor. Therefore, the writer is interested in analyzing humor, especially short-text humors from a linguistic point of view using a semantic theory, which covers semantic ambiguity (lexical and grammatical ambiguity) and truth-conditional semantics (including causal fallacy). In this study, the writer uses a qualitative research to find out what kinds of semantic mechanisms manipulated by short-text humors that make the humors sound funny. Furthermore, she also wants to know which one of those manipulations occurs most. The writer takes 25 short-text humors from Reader?s Digest edited in April, May and June 2003. In achieving her purpose, the writer divides the study into three steps. The first step is identifying and classifying the 25 short-text humors into four different semantic mechanisms. The second step is putting the findings into a table and counting the percentages of each semantic mechanism. Then, from the first and the second step, the writer discovers that short-text humors taken from Reader?s Digest of April, May and June 2003 editions manipulates lexical ambiguity, truth conditional semantics also causal fallacy to create funniness. In addition, the manipulation of truth conditional semantics is the most frequently used to make the humors funny. Causal fallacy is in the second possibility, whereas, lexical ambiguity has the lowest possibility to be used to make the fun of the humors.

Keyword : humor, linguistic

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2077/

A Study of cohesion in the essays of students of writing IV, of the Faculty of Letters, Petra Christian University

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This thesis is an analysis of cohesion in the essays of Writing IV Faculty of Letters? students. The researcher thinks that the ability to write well is very important for the students, for example in making their thesis. So, it is necessary for the students to know about cohesion. That is why the researcher decided to analyze Writing IV essays. She chose Writing IV essays because although the students already have enough experience in writing, the researcher still find mistakes in their essays. This reason also motivates her in analyzing Writing IV essays. In her thesis, she wants to find out the types of cohesion which are correctly and incorrectly used by the students. She hopes that the result of her research will be useful for the students of Faculty of Letters who major in Linguistics and who is interested in cohesion. In her analysis, the main theory that is used by the researcher is the theory of cohesion by Halliday and Hasan (1976). The theory talks about grammatical cohesion, which can be conveyed through Reference, Substitution, Ellipsis, and Conjunction; and lexical cohesion through Reiteration and Collocation. She applies this theory to analyze the data. She collects the data by photocopying the students? writing essays and she analyzes the essays thoroughly to find the cohesion types that occur in the essays. From the research, she finds that in all cohesion types, the correctly used types have higher number of occurrences than the incorrectly used ones. The fulfillment mostly happens in Conjunction and the mistake mostly occurs in Reference. In her analysis, the researcher also finds avoidance effect happens in certain cohesion types and mostly in Ellipsis. So, from the whole research, the researcher concludes that the students can apply cohesion well.

Keyword : english, language, linguistic, writing, petra, christian, university

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2676/

Opening and closing used by the pager operators and message senders

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This study analyzed the language used by the pager operators and the message senders in opening and closing the conversation. The conversation happened because the message senders wanted to deliver the message to the owner of pager machine through the operators. The writer developed her idea into two main parts: the classification of each Opening and Closing sequences and signals from the three companies and identification of the most frequenly used pattern of Opening and Closing used by pager operators and message senders small tape-recorder was used to record the respondents? conversation and also interviewing the officer who is in charged to control the operator?s work. The data were taken from three pager-operating companies in Surabaya in a form of Indonesian language and about ten conversations for each company. Furthermore, in analyzing the data, the basic theory, which the writer used, was Schegloff Telephone Conversation Theory (1968) especially about Opening and Closing signals theory. In the analysis, the writer will transcribe the data first, then identify and classify the opening and closing based on the theory she used and the company they belong to. Next, she will identify the pattern of opening and closing which mostly used in the conversation. At the end, to simplify the reader in understanding the finding, she put the findings into some Pie charts mostly applied a form of Finally, this study found that in the opening signals those three companies. “S-I + Greeting” in answering the summons, used Company?s name or operators? ID number to identify themselves and operators always greet first rather than the message senders in a Greeting part. In addition, for the closing signals result, the writer found that it was the operator who did the pre- close first by uttering the utterance to deliver the message or just repeating the message. Moreover, in a closing part, those three companies utilized thanking adjacency pair most to close the conversation and the rest could be in the form of Greeting or both.

Keyword : linguistic, discourse, analysis, operator, pager

A Pragmatic analysis on a collection of Indonesian Humors entitled Buku Pintar Ketawa Lagi.

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Reading humor is enjoyable as long as we can catch the amusing part. Meaning is inadequate to make us understand but we should concern on context and communication between the speaker and interlocutor as well. Those three can be learned in the study of Pragmatics. Furthermore, the writer chooses Indonesian humors of two-liner and short-text in which the two-way communication exists. Due to the interest of analyzing the Indonesian humors pragmatically, she conducts this research. In this thesis, she wants to answer two basic questions: how the Indonesian humors are pragmatically analyzed and how they are pragmatically classified. of pragmatics as the main theories. In the theory of pragmatics, the idea of world knowledge has already been explained to help her understand the context and the idea of inference to help her grasp the amusing part. Moreover, those theories are supported by the theory of speech act to see the speaker?s intended meaning and the theory of conversational implicature to see how participants observe the Cooperative Principle and to find what implicature they might generate. In this study, she takes 48 two-liner and short-text humors from a humor book entitled Buku Pintar Ketwa Lagi She uses a qualitative approach; especially documentary analyses to find out how the amusing approach occurs and the meanings people have given to particular utterances. Moreover, she sees the humorous text as a process rather than as a product. Next, she collects the data based on the category of the participants. There are nineteen categories in which three of them (animal, magician, and fortune-teller) are excluded for this study. Dirty jokes, too long humors, and one-participant humors are excluded as well. After analyzing the data, this study leads to the findings that in most humors people commonly uses the type of directives as expressing their intended meaning (the illocutionary act). Besides, most of them disobeyed the Cooperative Principle. Violating maxims arose at the highest rank of the non-observance of maxims. The maxim of quality and manner are mostly violated. In contrast, none carries out the suspension of a maxim. Finally, the findings lead to the conclusion that violating maxims – that is normally believed to rarely occur in daily communication for people are afraid to trick or make others feel offended-is created intentionally to cause humor.

Keyword : linguistic, discourse, analysis

An analysis of coherence in radio commercial broadcasted by radio Suzana

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This study is done in order to find out the coherence in radio commercial broadcasted Radio Suzana.Such aim is broken down into two main problems of the study which are What aspects of coherence devices are used in the conversations of radio commercial broadcasted by Radio Suzana ? and what function do these radio commercials, broadcasted by Radio Suzana play to correspond to the aspect of coherence?. The discourse theories used in solving these problems are Speecn Act theory,Cooperative Principle theory,Determining Inferences to be made and also Hyme?s Ethnography of Communication according to Brown and Yule (1 985). Seven radio commercial broadcasted by Radio Suzana, each taken from different topics, are collected as the data and analyzed using those four theories above. The data were obtained through recording the radio commercial broadcasted by Radio Suzana when the participants were speaking in one month. The findings show that the aspect of coherence, Speech Act theory, mostly used directive. The next aspect of comerence, Cooperative Principle theory, which occurred in a great deal of numbers was quantity maxim, while manner maxim occurred at the least.

Keyword : linguistic, discourse analysis, radio, commercial, broadcasting

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