Kumpulan Skripsi & Artikel Jurnal Ilmiah

2009

The Request strategies used by the male superior and the female subordinate before and after having close relationship in the film Two Weeks Notice

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Author : DIANITA, GRACE

In this research, the writer is interested in investigating request strategies since males and females can use them differently, especially when they deal with different social status and solidarity. Here, the writer wants to know about request strategies used by main male superior and female subordinate character in the film Two Weeks Notice. The writer uses Ervin-Trip?s theory to categorize the types of request; she also uses descriptive quantitative approach in describing the possible factors in the regularity of the type of request used by the main characters before and after they know each other well. The results show that the main male superior character (Mr. Wade) frequently uses question directives, while the main female subordinate character (Lucy) mostly uses question directives as well as hint directives, before they have close relationship. Then, after the solidarity exists, the writer finds that both characters regularly use bald imperatives. It means that both of them use indirect request strategies before having close relationship, and shift into direct request strategies after having close relationship.

Keyword : request strategies, gender, social status, solidarity

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4430/

Refusal strategies in English used by American and Indonesian University students based on age, sex, social status and social distance

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Author : NUGROHO, LISA

Refusing an invitation or offer is considered as one of the Face Threatening Acts (FTAs), especially to the positive-face want of the addressee. Therefore, in doing the refusal people should be made aware of the strategies used in order to lower the threat as well as to have a smooth interaction. Moreover, there are social factors such as Age, Sex, Social Status and Social Distance, which most likely influence the way people refuse the invitation or offer. These factors would affect people in choosing which strategies considered as the most appropriate ones to be used in a certain situation. However, the strategies chosen in the refusal might be different from one culture to another. As a result, the writer is not only interested in analyzing the refusal strategies from one group of respondents but also comparing the strategies on the American’students to those of the Indonesian students leaming English. Furthermore, using Discourse Completion Task (DCT), the data were taken from twenty six Indonesian students of Faculty of Letters in Petra Christian University and twenty five American students from three different universities in the United States of America. In categorizing the data, the writer used the theory of Politeness of Brown and Levinson (1989) as a supporting theory. Finally, from the data analysis, the writer found that the lndonesian respondents chose Apologizing as the most frequently used strategy of refusal while American respondents preferred to use Apologizing as well as Reason as their refusal strategies. There are other dominant strategies used by both group respondents, that are, Showing Interest, Thanking and Direct Refusal. Further, the writer noticed that the social factors such as Age, Sex, Social Status and Social Distance strongly influenced the choice of the refusal strategies, but it was also found that there were other social factors which influenced the choice of the strategies namely Solidarity and Respect.

Keyword : refusal strategies, english language, american university, indonesian university, age, sex, social status, social distance,

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4625/

Request expressions based on gender and social status by the five male and the five female characters in the film “Ada Apa Dengan Cinta”

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Author : PUSPITASARI, ERLIN

This study is about requests made by the five male and the five female characters to all characters in the film “Ada Apa Dengan Cinta?”. The writer is interested in analyzing request because in daily life, hardly to deny, people often produce request consciously or unconsciously to ask for something from other people. Moreover, speakers can express their requests in the various ways. The writer wants to reveal the types of request mostly used by the male and female characters in that film, and attempts to observe and to find the differences and similarities between the male and female characters? requests. The writer chooses that film because there are a lot of requests that made by the male and female characters. In conducting this study, the writer uses a combination between qualitative and quantitative approach. The data is collected by the three steps. They are watching the whole part of the film “Ada Apa Dengan Cinta?’, and buying the transcript of that film in QB World Books; identifying and listing down all the requests; and identifying setting, power, status, and the solidarity of the characters. In analyzing the data, the writer categorizes the requests into Trosborg?s theory of requests, groups the data and puts them in the Table, and calculates in order to get the frequency and percentage. Having analyzed all the data, the writer finds out that Imperatives are mostly used by the male and female superiors, equals, and subordinates (the writer divides the male and female characters into superiors, equals, and subordinates based on their wealth, descent, occupation, and education). It happens because mostly the characters are teenagers. It seems that teenagers prefer a straightforward and direct request when they perform the requests. Besides, the writer finds that a type of request, the Hedged Performatives, is not used by the characters. It happens because this type is very formal and oppose with the context in the film “Ada Apa Dengan Cinta?” (the male and female characters make requests in an informal context).

Keyword : request expressions, gender, social status

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/5002/

A Study of types of directives used among library personnel at Petra Christian University

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Author : FINN, CANARY

In our daily life, people ask someone to do something. Getting someone to do something is directive. In the workplace, the occurrence of directives deals with getting all things done. The writer studied the use of directives from subordinate to superior in the workplace that was at Petra Christian University Library. The writers wanted to know what types of directives were used by female part time students toward the staffs. By using the theory of directives proposed by Ervin-Tripp (1976), the writer analyzed the use of directives utterances from two female part time students toward three male staffs and three female staffs. The writer also took natural conversation as the source of data. As a result, the writer found that almost all types of directives were used by female part time students when they got conversation with the staff. The structures used to express directives were imperative, interrogative and declarative. There were also similarities and differences between directives utterances used by female part time students to male staffs and to female staffs. One of the similarities was one type of directives did not occur that were embedded imperative. For the difference, need statement did not occur in the conversation from female part time students toward male staffs. Finally, the writer hopes that this study can give information about directives from female subordinates to male and female superiors.

Keyword : directives, social status

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2366/

The Speech styles used by the main male character in Ca Bau Kan

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Author : , SELVY

This is a sociolinguistic study of the speech styles used by the main male character in Ca Bau Kan, Tan Peng Liang, when speaking to the three different addressees of different social status: Max Awuy whose status is lower than Tan Peng Liang?s, Jeng Tut whose status is equal to Tan Peng Liang?s and J.P Verdoorn whose status is higher than Tan Peng Liang?s. The writer wants to find out the types of speech styles used by Tan Peng Liang when speaking to those three different addressees. Moreover, the writer also wants to know the types of speech styles mostly used by Tan Peng Liang to each of those three different addressees. Moreover, this research is based on Joos?s (1976) and Nababan?s (1993) theory about speech styles. There are five types of speech styles: frozen, formal, consultative, casual and intimate style. In addition, the writer also refers to Abdul Chaer (2000) and Kridalaksana (1984) theories on the lexical and grammatical characteristics for standard Indonesian as the basis of her analysis. The results of this study indicate that formal, consultative, casual and intimate style are the speech styles used by Tan Peng Liang when speaking to Jeng Tut and J.P Verdoorn. Only when speaking to Max Awuy, Tan Peng Liang uses three types of speech styles namely, formal, consultative and casual styles. He never uses the intimate style eventhough Max?s social status is lower than Tan Peng Liang?s. Among those five speech styles, consultative style is the most dominant one. More than half of the utterances produced by Tan Peng Liang are about consultative style. It is in line with the fact that consultative style is the commonly used speech styles in everyday speech (Joos, 1976).

Keyword : speech styles, social status

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4092/

Refusal strategies used by male characters based on ethnicity in My Big Fat Greek Wedding

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Author : BETA, ANGELA

This research is about refusal strategies used by male main characters based on ethnicity in the movie My Big Fat Greek Wedding. In this research, the writer wants to find out the types and differences of refusal strategies used by Greek and American male main characters. It is hoped that the results, can contribute to the readers in understanding that people?s speech is influenced by social factor. To do the investigation, the writer refers to the theory of refusal strategies (Beebe et al, 1990) and the theories of ethnicity both Greek (Tannen, 1990) and American (Felix-Brasdefer, 2002). The findings show that there are two differences regarding the types of refusal that are used towards requests, offers, and suggestions (there is no occurrence of refusal strategies toward invitations by those two characters) and the types concerning the addressee. The first differences regarding the types used by those characters towards requests, offers, and suggestions are American never uses “acceptance that functions as a refusal” as Greek does and Greek uses “excuse, reason, explanation” only toward suggestions whereas American uses it toward requests, offers, and suggestions. It is also found that Greek?s speech is more indirect compared to the American?s speech. Regarding the addressees, there is no difference found since topic influence more than the addressees? social status and social distance. From those results, it can be concluded that cultural background influences people?s speech since it brings differences.

Keyword : refusal strategy, ethnicity, social status, social distance

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4336/

The Compliments and the compliment responses use by the characters in “What Women Want”

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Author : NOVA, IRENE

This research tried to find the type of compliments and the compliment responses used by the main characters in the movie “What Women Want”. The research tried to find the type of compliments produced by the main female character (Darcy). Furthermore, the research also tried to find the types of compliment responses produced by the main male character (Nick). The main theory of compliments and compliment responses was Herbert?s theory (1989). This research was a descriptive qualitative research. The writer got the data from the utterances in the conversations between the two main characters in the movie that the writer grabbed from the script. In her analysis, the writer classified the compliments into three, that is, compliments on appearance, compliments on skills/ abilities and compliments on possessions. However, the writer found a type of compliment that did not belong to Herbert?s theory. The type is compliment on personality. Moreover, the writer also classified the compliment responses. Finally, the writer concluded that social status and gender did not always influence the way Darcy as a female superior character gave compliments toward Nick as a male subordinate character. Moreover, social status and gender did not influence the way Nick responded Darcy?s compliment. Besides, the writer found that personal feeling was the one that influences the way Darcy complimented when the relationship between them (Nick and Darcy) was getting closer and closer.

Keyword : compliments, compliment responses, gender, social status

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4353/

A Study of the main character’s efforts to overcome his obstacles in reaching his dream as seen in Dickens’ great expectation

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Author : MARTHA, ANGELIA

Great Expectations is a novel that is written by Charles Dickens, one of the greatest English novelists in the Victorian period. It tells about the struggle of its main character (Pip) to overcome his obstacles in reaching his great expectations to climb the social ladder. Therefore, climbing the social ladder is the main theme of this novel. I am interested in analyzing this novel because this novel gives me a clear picture of how people from the lower class struggle to change their life. I can see how they try hard to overcome their obstacles in order to have a better life. That is why in this thesis I would like to discuss how the main character struggles to overcome his obstacles in climbing the social ladder. Through the analysis I want to find out the effort of the main character in reaching his dream and how he overcomes the obstacles. In the analysis I will use literary approach, and the tools that I use are characterization and conflict. Besides that, I also use some concepts that are important in the analysis, such as poverty, climbing the social ladder, struggle, and also obstacles. Through the analysis, I find out some obstacles that Pip has to face, namely living in his poverty, his family?s condition and his low self esteem. Yet, through his efforts that is, getting good education or studying hard, winning his sister?s heart, and finding in fact, he has the ability to advance in his life, he is able to overcome the obstacles and reach his dream. He is successful in climbing the social ladder. From Pip?s experience, it can be seen that if people want to work hard and shave strong will, they will reach their dream.

Keyword : poor, social status, obstacles, struggle

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4377/

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