Author : KODYAT, HERMANTO
The use of politeness strategies is one of the speaking styles which are usually used by people in order to make the communication process between speaker and hearer go smoothly. According to Brown and Levinson the politeness strategies themselves are divided into two, i.e. the positive politeness and negative politeness. The Writer conducted this study in order to find out what politeness strategies are used by the interviewers, what positive politeness strategies are mostly used by interviewers and what negative politeness strategies are mostly used by interviewers. In this research, the writer uses descriptive approach . In conducting the research, the writer uses the recorded material containing the process of interview. The interview was taken from PT Money Mall, a kind of International standard company dealing with the foreign currency in looking for clients to invest money. There are four interviews. The interviewers as Marketing Managers and the interviewees as the job applicants. The data consist of the interviewers? utterances, which are underlined and numbered The writer uses Brown and Levinson?s criteria about the positive and negative politeness. There are fifteen strategies of positive politeness and ten strategies of negative politeness. After four interviews had been analyzed, they are. combined into one table containing the number of strategies from the whole interview, together with the table explanations and table of percentage of the politeness strategy as the findings. The finding also discusses the tendency or the reasons why the interviewer used certain expressions showing the certain strategies. Finally, the writer tries to interpret what the writer has found by using the theories connected with the politeness strategies itself and he related with P,D, R rating concerned with the positive and negative politeness. In conclusion, the writer concludes that the interviewers use more positive politeness than negative politeness.
Keyword : politeness strategies, sociolinguistics, linguistic, discourse analysis
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/1517/
Author : OCTOVIA, NAOMI
Expressing gratitude is one of the routinized speech acts which has a social or polite meaning besides apologizing. In this case, people look at it as a politeness behaviour and a crucial part to build and establish social relationships. There are two important linguistic features such as different cultural backgrounds and gender of the speakers that influence people in expressing gratitude. From these factors, the writer is interested in analyzing gratitude expressions, particularly about strategies they used in expressing gratitude. The data of this study were taken from the open-ended questionnaires distributed to ten Javanese students and ten Chinese-Indonesian students of Faculty of Economy of Petra Christian University, that each group consisted of five males and five females. The data were categorized based on Haverkate’s thanking strategy (1984) that consists of eight strategies. They are thanking somebody explicitly, expressing gratitude, expressing appreciation of the addressee, expressing appreciation of the act, acknowledging a debt of gratitude stressing one’s gratitude, expressing emotion, and self-denigration. From the analysis, the writer finds out that strategy 1, thanking somebody explicitly, is the most strategy used by both male and female Javanese and Chinese-Indonesian students. However, based on gender analysis, female respondents used it more than male respondents did. On the ethnicity analysis, Chinese-Indonesian students used strategy 1 more than Javanese students did. Another two strategies mostly used by the students are strategy 2, expressing gratitude, and strategy 7, expressing emotion. The interesting here is also found in the use of expression of making a joke by the students as the strategy to express their gratitude. This strategy is not included in the eight strategies proposed by Haverkate. Finally, the findings suggested that females tended to use direct strategy more than men did; while Chinese-Indonesian students tended to use direct strategy than Javanese students did. The writer then concludes that people of different sex and ethnicity do have differences and similarities in using strategy of expressing gratitude.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, male, female, javanese, chinese-indonesian students
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4791/
Author : , SHIERLY
The quiz called Who Wants To Be A Millionaire, which is broadcasted in RCTI, every Saturday at 07.00 p.m until 08.00 p.m, is one of the famous quizes which focuses on the interaction between presenter and contestant. The presenter of the program, Tantowi Yahya, is able to bring a good and casual atmosphere to the program. He is able to use the proper expressions in this program which lead him to the use of code switching. In this thesis, the writer would like to find out the kinds of language that the presenter uses during the show, since he is the one who runs the whole show. Also she would like to know the kind of language which mostly used by the presenter. The writer chose this topic and subject because sometimes when she watches the quiz on television program, people use code switching. Moreover, this is a famous, interesting and educating quiz which has been awarded as the most favourite TV quiz program and Tantowi Yahya, as the presenter, has been elected as the most favourite presenter in Panasonic Award 2001. In collecting the data, the writer records three episodes of Who Wants To Be A Millionaire quiz and transcribes the recording. Later, she uses the transcription as her data. In analyzing the data, the writer uses Holmes theory of code switching by a descriptive study of code switching. In this thesis, we can find later that the use of English language is quite dominant in the whole result which is 60.6% from the whole switch, and Non Standard language also has big number of percentage, 35.3% from the whole switch, while Javanese language only appeared 2.7%, and Arabic language only 1.4% from total code. This means that the switch that occured on the quiz mostly happened because the speaker uses a second language (especially English) within his utterances, and the other switch happened because of the change of language from formal to informal.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, code switching, language
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2140/
Author : HARTANTO, DENNIS
This study is about differences of spoken Indonesian used in opening expressions, closing expressions and the use of addressing terms by people in Jakarta and Surabaya as seen through Lenong and Srimulat theatres. The writer analyzed the lexical and prosodic features while the grammatical items will be excluded. The writer used the descriptive approach in doing this study. In getting the data, he used a TV shows of Lenong and Srimulat theatres as the subject of this study The theories that are used by the writer in analyzing the data are the theory of Sociolinguistics, the theory expressions as well as the classification of English personal pronouns that is used as the basic theory to discuss the opening expressions, closing expressions and addressing terms used by the subjects. After analyzing all the data, the writer finds out from the data that the opening expressions in Lenong are softer than opening expressions in Srimulat Because in Lenong, they like to use opening expressions with title while in Srimulat, they like to use opening expressions with personal name. The closing expressions in Srimulat are ruder than closing expressions in Lenong Because in Srimulat, they like to use closing expression without a lip service while in Lenong, they like to use closing expressions with a lip service. The addressing terms in Srimulat is ruder than the addressing terms in Lenong although for some occasions the tone of addressing terms in Srimulat is softer than usual.
Keyword : javanese, language, sociolinguistics, lenong, srimulat
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2841/
Author : MARGARETHA, MEYKE
In campus life, expressing disagreement is a common thing. For this reason, the writer is interested to find out how gender and solidarity influence male and female students? disagreement strategies, mainly whether they are confrontational or nonconfrontational, toward their male and female teachers. The data of this study are 25 male and 25 female students of the English Department of Petra Christian University. The writer used a discourse completion test that is questionnaire to collect the data. She made four role-play situations in order to help the respondent in expressing their disagreement easily. Then, the data are categorized based on Garcia?s (1989) classification of disagreement strategies, concerning confrontational and nonconfrontational, and put them in tables. In this study, she analyzed the data with a statistics analysis in order to get significant results. From the statistics, she found that the male students have no significant differences of disagreement strategies toward their male and female teachers. On the other hand, it shows there is significant differences of confrontational and nonconfrontational used by the female students toward their male and female teachers. The female students tended to use confrontational strategy toward their male teachers, mostly they used “challenge.” It may be because they felt uncomfortable when talking to male teachers. By using “challenge, they just demanded response or even just an answer from the male teachers as their interlocutors, as soon as possible. On the contrary, they tended to use nonconfrontational strategy, especially “giving reason,” when the interlocutors are female teachers. Perhaps they felt more comfortable in the same-sex interaction than in cross-sex interaction.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, disagreement strategies
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2036/
Author : DEWI, AMELIA
This study is basically an analysis of the dialogues between Yatun and her father, the two main characters of “Ambyuke Nyonyah Besar”, a short story written in Surabaya Javanese dialect by Suparto Brata. In this study, the writer looked for the associative lexical items of the utterances and finds both their cognitive and associative meaning in order to reveal the propositional content and the illocutionary force of the speech act utterances. This study is a qualitative research; therefore, the main instrument is the writer herself. The source of data was taken from the dialogues between the main characters in Suparto Brata?s short story `Ambyuke Nyonyah Besar”, one of the short-stories in his book “TREM Antologi Crita Cekak”, a compilation of twenty short-stories which were all written in Javanese. For her analysis, first she organized the utterances between Yatun and her father by giving numbers. Then, she grouped them based on their topics. Next, she proceeded to identifying the propositional content of the utterance in which she looked for both cognitive and associative meaning of the associative lexical items found in the utterances. Having analyzed all the data, she found out twenty-two speech act utterances with various associative lexical items used by the characters in speaking to each other. Those associative lexical items had both cognitive and associative meanings. The propositional content of the utterances were based on both types of meaning above. However, the illocutionary forces of the utterances were derived from the propositional content of the associative meaning of the associative lexical items as the writer of this study believes that it reveals the intended meaning of the speaker. Finally, the writer of this study concluded that in order to understand Javanese, both speaker and interlocutor should understand the two types of meanings revealed in the associative lexical items, which were the cognitive and the associative meanings of the associative lexical items. By analyzing of the associative lexical items, it was possible to determine the illocutionary force of the utterance. In this way, what the speaker intended to say was eventually revealed.
Keyword : antrophological, linguistics, java, sociolinguistics, language
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2147/
Author : PRAWITO, HAINESS
This study aims to identify the differences and the similarities of the refusal strategies used by thirty Javanese and thirty Chinese female university students in refusing a date invitation by comparing the occurrence of each strategy. The data were gathered from three universities in Surabaya, Airlangga, Surabaya, and Petra. There were three main theories that are used in this study: The Refusal Strategies by Carmen Garcia (1992), Head Acts and Supportive Moves by Blum-Kulka (1989), and Politeness Strategies by Scollon and Scollon (1983). The writer found that the female Chinese students preferred using Direct Refusal and Mitigated Refusal as the Head Acts, while female Javanese students preferred using Direct Refusal, Expression of Regret or Sorrow, and Mitigated Refusal as the Head Acts. The writer also found that most of the respondents preferred using Giving Reason or Explanation, and Expression of Regret or Sorrow as the Supportive Moves. These facts may imply that the Javanese students tend to avoid saying ?no? by using Deference Politeness, while the Chinese students tend to be straightforward by using Solidarity Politeness in refusing a date invitation. The last but not the least, the writer found that the female students frequently used Expression of Regret or Sorrow, Direct Refusal/ Mitigated Refusal, Giving Reason as the pattern in refusing a date invitation.
Keyword : refusal, date invitation, sociolinguistics, female university students
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2877/
Author : ENDRA, YANTY
This study investigates the speech styles used in”Selamat Datang Pagi” dialog program on “RCTI”. The writer is interested to investigate the speech styles because speech style is important to use to communicate with other people. The writer applied Martin Joos? theory (1976) of speech styles, which are divided into five categories: frozen style, formal style, consultative style, casual style and intimate style as her main theory supported by Nababan (1991), Holmes (1995), Abdul Chaer and Leony Agustina (1986), Kridalaksana (1984), and Tata Bahasa Baku Indonesia (1992). In analysing the data, firstly, the writer recorded the speakers? utterances to be transcribed. Secondly, she identified the utterances used by male and female host based on the classification of speech styles whether frozen, formal, consultative, casual or intimate style. Based on the characteristics given by speech styles, the analysis where presented using tables, including the frequency of the occurrence of each speech styles. Through the analysis, the writer found that there are four speech styles produce by male and female host; they are formal, consultative, casual and intimate style. Casual style occurs mostly, followed by consultative, formal and the last intimate style. The findings of this research shows that casual style is the most frequently uses in “Selamat Datang Pagi” dialog program, which has family atmosphere. Using casual style can make male and female host more comfortable to communicate, and using this style can support male and female host?s situation become enjoyable so they can easily tell their opinion to the guests.
Keyword : indonesian language, sociolinguistics, speech
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2039/
Author : TISILA, ARDILES
The real functions of the swear words are to insult, to mock, and to curse someone or something with obscene words (Partridge, 1984). Generally, any kinds of swear words are forbidden to appear in any conversations in both formal and informal situations. However, youngsters nowadays often use many swear words in their conversations with their friends especially when they have jokes or call their friends? names. These kinds of conversations often occur among the male students of Petra Christian University especially in the boarding house. In this case, the writer is curious to identify Javanese swear words that are spoken by the male students of Petra Christian University as well as their purposes. The writer used descriptive-qualitative approach in order to get the data in the boarding house through note-taking. He also used himself as the instrument and the observer to collect the data in their conversations in the boarding house. In the analysis, after having collected the data, he tabulated the findings and then discussed them. The result of this study indicates that nowadays swear words in the conversations among the youngsters have become more usual nowadays in their social life, especially for male students of Petra Christian University.
Keyword : sociolinguistics, swear word, verbal obscenity, javanese language, slang
Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2153/