Kumpulan Skripsi & Artikel Jurnal Ilmiah

2009

A Study of topical strategies and topic shift markers in teaching english to children in friendships english course in Surabaya

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Author : SETIAWATI, HENY

In teaching, the teacher tends to talk about one topic and then shift and develop it into many new topics or subtopics and sometimes use markers to mark the shift. The writer is interested in analyzing topic shift and topic shift markers because she wanted to know what types of topical strategies and topic shift markers that are mostly used by the teacher in teaching English as a foreign language to the children. The writer chooses a teacher who is teaching the children because the writer consider that, as a teacher he or she should be aware in teaching the children while children need more time in acquiring the foreign language than the adult. This research might help people understand the use of topical strategies and topic shift markers in teaching the children in order to prevent misunderstanding or message misinterpretation. The writer employed descriptive approach in this study. The data were obtained through recording the subjects while the teachers were teaching the students for an hour in every meeting. In analyzing the data, the writer firstly transcribed the collected data into written form. Secondly, she identified the topical strategies and topic shift markers that are used by the teacher in teaching English to children. Then, she applied Stenstrom?s theory about topical strategies (1994) and Schiffrin?s theory about discourse markers (1991) in the analysis. After a thorough analysis, the writer found that in teaching English to the children, the teacher used all the topical strategies that are introduced by Stenstorm. Furthermore, not all topic shift markers that are introduced by Schiffrin were used by the teacher for example like “and, but, or”, “well”, “Y?know/I mean”. The teacher tends to use other markers like “come on” and called the name of the students in order to give some order that the students have to do. In this analysis, the writer analyzed the number of occurrence of topical strategies and topic shift markers that mostly used by the teacher. From the analysis, it could be noticed that the teacher mostly used the topical strategy of introducing a topic and then followed by others like shifting, terminating, digressing, resuming, changing and drifting. The strategy of introducing a topic was mostly occurred in teaching the children, it happened because the teacher controlled over the class conditions so he or she had to introduce many topics to the students. Actually, the writer also found the occurrence numbers of topic shift markers that were used by the teachers in teaching the children. They were “question”, “pause”, “alright”, “now”, “eh”, “oh”, “oya”, “come on”, and “so”. Question was mostly occurred in shifting the topic from one topic into another one. It usually happen when the teacher wanted to introduced a new topic to the children in the class of foreign language.

Keyword : english language, study and teaching, english course

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2033/

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The Communication strategies in conversations used by the good and poor students of speaking 4 of the english department of petra christian university

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Author : RAHAYU, FONNY

This study observed the communication strategies used by good and poor students of speaking four in Faculty of Letters. It focused on kinds of types of communication strategies produced by good students, kinds of types of communication strategies produced by poor students, and the differences between the good and poor students in using communication strategies in a conversation. The data were taken from recording the conversation in which the topics were made by the writer. The role-play was done by twenty students, ten of them are good students and ten of them are poor students. The data were analyzed based on the theory of communication strategies. The findings showed that the good students used seven strategies; meanwhile the poor students used six strategies. The number of using the strategies shows that the good students are more successful than poor students in maintaining conversations.

Keyword : english language, discourse analysis, conversation, communication strategies, good and poor student

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2186/

A Study on the pitch variation of the expression “I love you” in different role relationships

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Author : GUNGORO, INDRAWATI

This study investigates the kinds of pitch variations from the 50 expressions of “I love you” and to know what affects the types of the pitch contours. The writer will analyze what affects the types of the pitch contours by using the theory of meaning prominence by Daniel Jones. In order to know how many kinds of the pitch variations, the writer draws each of the intonation contours from the data according to Gleason?s theory of intonation (1965). The subject of this study are 50 expressions of “I love you” taken from 11 movies that have been watched by the writer. To collect the data the writer acted as one of the tool besides the VCD cassettes, VCD player, paper, ball point. The writer transcribed the conversation before and after the expression of “I love you” as found in appendix. After doing the analysis, the writer found the answer for the research question. The first is the types of pitch variations with different kinds of role-relationship. There are four types of pitch contour from 50 expressions of “I Love You”. Second, the types of pitch contour are affected only by the meaning prominence and not by the role relationship. If the word is the most prominent, the pitch contour will go up.

Keyword : english language, phonetics, spoken english, relationships

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2050/

A Study of topical strategies and topic shift markers at lec of petra christian university

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Author : AUDREY, EVALINCE

Language is very important in human communication. It is used to share information and maintain social relationships. When two or more people meet, conversation may occur. This also happens between teachers and students in classrooms. In teaching, the teacher tends to talk about one topic and then shift and develop it into many new topics or sub-topics and sometimes use markers to mark the shift also. The writer is eager to find the types of topical strategies and topic shift markers that are often used by teachers in teaching adults in the conversation classes of PPB – Language Education Center of Petra Christian University. She also wants to know how the frequencies of topical strategies and topic shift markers are used by the teachers in teaching the adults in the conversation classes. The writer employs Stenstrom?s theory about topical strategies (1994) and Schiffrin?s theory about discourse markers (1991) in analyzing the data. Qualitative approach is used in this study. The data were found through recording the subjects while the teachers were teaching the students for two hours in every meeting. From the analysis of this study, the types of topical strategies, the types of topic shift markers, and how the frequencies of topical strategies and topic shift markers are used in teaching the students are discovered. The writer found that in teaching, the teachers use all of the topical strategies available and also the teachers used “question”, “now”, “alright/that?s all/okay”, “oh”, “so”, “eh”, “pause”, “then”, “come on”, and “well” as the topic shift markers. These findings indicate that the teachers tend to shift and develop one topic into many new topics and subtopics. Moreover, questions are used by the teachers to introduce new topics. It is the topic shift marker that the teachers mostly used in teaching the students because the teacher is the one who controlled over the class conditions.

Keyword : english language, discourse analysis, conversation, topic shift, topic shift marker, topical strategies

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2188/

The Flouting of conversational maxims in FRIENDS

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Author : IMELDA, ALICIA

The Cooperative Principle has an important role in the conversation. It should be obeyed by the speaker and the hearer in order to have a smooth conversation. Grice proposed the Cooperative Principles that are reflected in the four maxims of conversation: they are, the Maxim of Quantity, the Maxim of Quality, the Maxim of Relevance, and the Maxim of Manner. In a conversation, sometimes people may flout those maxims for some certain reasons even though it does not mean that they fail to communicate with each other. This study discusses the reasons of flouting the conversational maxims in comedy serials Friends. The writer is interested in finding out the mostly flouted maxim and the reasons behind the flouting done by the characters in Friends because she realizes that maxims of conversation are important in the conversation. The writer limits her study to the conversation in the three episodes of serial Friends. In analyzing the data, she uses Grice?s theory of conversational maxims. The writer uses descriptive approach to describe the reasons behind the flouting of maxims by the characters in Friends. She puts the reasons of each maxim in the table in order to make her easier knowing the most flouted maxim. After doing the analysis, she has found out that the Maxim of Quantity is the most flouted in Friends. Moreover, there are many reasons for flouting each maxim such as being clear, being cynical, hiding something, ending the conversation, changing the conversation topic.

Keyword : english language, conversation, phrase books, spoken english

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2056/

Blending in the aticles in Kompas and USA Today newspapers

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Author : TANOYO, MELIANA

Blending as one kind of word-formation processes is applied in the articles in the newspapers, and blending is a very productive source of word in modern English, both in literary and scientific work. By doing this research, the writer gets deep knowledge about blending. Moreover, she can use this knowledge as the basic knowledge if she wants to learn more about linguistics, especially for morphology. In this research, the writer wants to investigate in what way Indonesian blends in the articles in Kompas and English blends in the articles in USA Today apply the rules of blending. In her research, she uses theory of blending froin Bauer, theory of blending from Adams, and theory of Indonesian syllabification as underlying theories. Moreover, she uses theory of word forination from Yule, and theory of blending from Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik as the supporting theories. The approach of this research was qualitative because the finding of this research were in the form of statements instead of number. Furthermore, the writer collected the data from the articles in Kompas and USA Today of March 21st until April 21st, 2002. Then, she analyzed those blends. For blends in Bahasa Indonesia, she found seven basic atterns and seven variations from the basic patterns. There are two patterns of Indonesian blends which is the same with the rules of blending in English. English blends do not always follow the rules of blending. There is one pattern of English blend which does not follow the rules of blending.

Keyword : english language, indonesian, semantic, kompas, usa today, articles

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2510/

Error types based on linguistic category in the English composition written by the students of writing I at the English Department Petra Christian University

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Author : IRAWAN, MILASENDA

My study is of error types that are particularly focused on the types of errors in English compositions. The types of errors in English compositions are based on the theory of Professor James Hendrickson, in which the types of errors are classified according to the linguistic category. Therefore, it includes the errors in lexical, morphological, syntactic and orthographic categories. By discovering the students? errors in writing their compositions, this thesis is also to show the most committed type of errors based on linguistic category. I conduct my study by using descriptive and text analysis approach. In this study, I collect the data from Indonesian students who are learning English as a second language at the English Department in Petra Christian University. Specifically, they are the students of 2003 who take their Writing I class in 2003/2004 academic year. I particularly use picture story in order to raise their ideas in writing a composition. There are fifteen drafts to be the data samples, which are then analyzed. The results of the analyses show that the morphological errors gain the highest percentage, while the orthographic errors get the lowest percentage in the compositions. It is important to note that the syntactic errors also take a dominant percentage in the compositions. Since the students mostly produced the morphological and syntactic errors, the findings might suggest that most of the students have problems and difficulties in the application of the Standard English grammar. In addition, it might also suggest that the students? repertoire of English vocabulary items is sufficient in writing a composition, due to the fact that the lexical errors only count for a small percentage. Here, the students are able to use simple lexical items in appropriate situation in writing their compositions.

Keyword : english language, errors of usage, linguistic, writing

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2068/

Refusal strategies in English used by American and Indonesian University students based on age, sex, social status and social distance

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Author : NUGROHO, LISA

Refusing an invitation or offer is considered as one of the Face Threatening Acts (FTAs), especially to the positive-face want of the addressee. Therefore, in doing the refusal people should be made aware of the strategies used in order to lower the threat as well as to have a smooth interaction. Moreover, there are social factors such as Age, Sex, Social Status and Social Distance, which most likely influence the way people refuse the invitation or offer. These factors would affect people in choosing which strategies considered as the most appropriate ones to be used in a certain situation. However, the strategies chosen in the refusal might be different from one culture to another. As a result, the writer is not only interested in analyzing the refusal strategies from one group of respondents but also comparing the strategies on the American’students to those of the Indonesian students leaming English. Furthermore, using Discourse Completion Task (DCT), the data were taken from twenty six Indonesian students of Faculty of Letters in Petra Christian University and twenty five American students from three different universities in the United States of America. In categorizing the data, the writer used the theory of Politeness of Brown and Levinson (1989) as a supporting theory. Finally, from the data analysis, the writer found that the lndonesian respondents chose Apologizing as the most frequently used strategy of refusal while American respondents preferred to use Apologizing as well as Reason as their refusal strategies. There are other dominant strategies used by both group respondents, that are, Showing Interest, Thanking and Direct Refusal. Further, the writer noticed that the social factors such as Age, Sex, Social Status and Social Distance strongly influenced the choice of the refusal strategies, but it was also found that there were other social factors which influenced the choice of the strategies namely Solidarity and Respect.

Keyword : refusal strategies, english language, american university, indonesian university, age, sex, social status, social distance,

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4625/

Some problems in mother and daughter relationship explained through illocutionary and perlocutionary acts in Anywhere but here

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Author : LOREN, SILVIA

In verbal communication, sometimes the process does not run smoothly. It happens because the hearer does not know what the speaker expects. Because communication is very important to make a better relationship, the researcher is interested in analyzing speech acts, which play important roles in communication, especially in the illocutions and the perlocution and the factors of communication problems. In the data, the writer chooses “Anywhere but Here” because there are many communication problems, especially between Adele as a mother and Ann as a daughter. For the theory, she used Speech Act theory. In collecting the data, the writer transcribed the film then she classified and identified the illocutions and the perlocutions of the utterances and then concluded which area that creates communication problem. In analysis, the researcher found out that the area, which causes communication problems the most, is in Giving (More) Explanation, Asking the Hearer to Do Something, Criticizing and Mocking. As the conclusion, the writer concluded that people could minimize communication problems in their relationship if they understand the expectation of the speaker.

Keyword : discourse analysis, english language, semantics, semiotics

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/2091/

The Study of universe of discourse in conversations among the members of the families in American Beauty

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Author : FELICIA, AMELIA

In communication, the members of a family are not always able to get their messages across, and this may cause some conflicts in the family. To get their messages across, the members of a family need to pay attention to some strategies in communication including the strategies in maintaining the same universe of discourse. Universe of discourse means the particular world (real or imaginary) that the speaker assumes to say at that particular time. In American Beauty, the writer notices that the participants have a lot of conflicts, and it triggers the writer to investigate the film. Moreover, this film projects many themes that occur in this modem life, and this film seems trying to warn people about their own lives that could be like the film. In her study, the writer wants to find out whether the participants in conversations among the members of the families in American Beauty share the same universe of discourse or not, and what the strategies that they use if they share the same universe of discourse. She also wants to find out if there is participant who pretends to share the same universe of discourse. The writer only analyzes the conversations that happen among the members of the two families in American Beauty. Here, the writer finds that the participants mostly do not share the same universe of discourse. However, there are also few times when the participants are sharing the same universe of discourse. The three strategies that are used by the participants in sharing the same universe of discourse are the spatial frames of reference strategy in anchoring in the perspective of the speaker, shared domains and coreference strategy and new information strategy. She finds that the participants mostly use the shared domains and coreference strategy. Furthermore, she finds out that there is a participant who is pretending to share the same universe of discourse but actually not sharing the same universe of discourse with the other participant. The writer concludes that the participants mostly do not share the same universe of discourse although the participants in conversations among the members of the families in American Beauty come from the same world because they have different ideas, feelings and interests.

Keyword : english language, conversations, families, american beauty

Sumber : http://repository.petra.ac.id/4768/

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